The CIA Today: Drone Warfare, Destabilization and the New Scramble for Africa

One of the CIA’s most well-known ongoing operation is the coordination of bombings by unmanned drones. These high-tech terrorist operations, sometimes coordinated directly with the US military, are carried out remotely from far away sites like the Pentagon, the public headquarters of the CIA in Langley, Virginia or other locations around the world such as Mogadishu in Somalia. (55) (56) It is known that the US carries out drone attacks in Yemen, Somalia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Libya, though the CIA could very well be conducting similar operations elsewhere without documented public knowledge. Since the 2008 election of Barack Obama as President of the United States, the use of fatal drone attacks against suspected terrorists has dramatically increased. According to the website, Pakistanbodycount.org, which tracks both deaths from suicide bombings and drone attacks, over 2,600 Pakistanis were killed by unmanned drone attacks between 2004 and November 2011. (57) According to the Bureau of Investigative Journalism, which maintains its own current tally of the causalities of the US’ drone warfare, between 392-781 civilians have been killed by drone attacks in Pakistan, 175 of them children. Of the 306 drone strikes carried out, 254 have been carried out under President Obama. (58)

Other CIA operations recently conducted with less exposure were the attempted overthrow of the Iranian government in 2009, and the 2011 violent overthrow of the Gaddafi-led ‘Jamahiriya’ government in Libya.

In Iran and elsewhere, CIA activities have followed a different model, one of using street unrest rather than military juntas, says researcher Thierry Meyssan. Such events are termed ‘color revolutions’ because they appear to involve widespread participation by the general population. Typically in color revolutions, genuine dissidents, believing they are rallying for genuine social reform, are manipulated by the CIA network in a bid to overthrow a particular adversarial government. Color revolutions are orchestrated through a host of non-profit and nominally non-governmental organizations that are otherwise funded by the US government and connected to the CIA network. Some of these organizations include the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), The United States Institute for Peace, the International Center for Human Rights and Democratic Development (an organization based out of Canada), the American Center for International Labor Solidarity, and the Albert Einstein Institute. (59) (60) In places where these organizations are highly active, the CIA network is attempting to destabilize countries and governments with civil unrest and the violence that follows. (61) As admitted by Allen Weinstein, a co-founder of the NED: “A lot of what we do today was done covertly by the CIA 25 years ago.” (62) CIA-sponsored color revolutions have been successful in Bulgaria in 1990 and Albania in 1992. (63)

Plans for an Iranian color revolution were initially drawn up in 2002 by the American Enterprise Institute a right wing Washington D.C.-based propaganda mill. In 2007, after realizing the difficulties of directly invading a third Muslim country to impose ‘regime change,’ $400 million dollars was allocated by the US congress towards this goal through other covert methods, in addition to the discretionary budgets of the CIA, NED, etc. that goes to this aim. The three main recipients of these funds were the Rafsanjani family (that of a pro-Western, free-market politician and former Iranian President), the Pahlavi family (that of the former despotic Shah, overthrown in 1979) and the Mujahedin Khalq Organization (MKO – an organization tied to Washington which commits bombings and other terrorist acts inside Iran). Propaganda outlets were set up and financed throughout the world. (64) Organizations such as the ‘Coalition for Democracy in Iran’ were set up in the USA and staffed with right-wing members of organizations such as the American Enterprise Institute and the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). (65) While certain wings of the CIA network may advocate non-violence and democracy, these PR-friendly positions are often backed by terrorism committed by its other wings. Moreover, for the ‘peaceful’ and ‘democratic’ wings of the CIA network, non-violence is used cynically as another tactic, like terrorism, to attain the end of installing governments pliable to Western-led capital. What matters for the CIA network is building public opinion, through assassinations, fear or otherwise, to create, maintain and extend specific policies in countries around the world. (66)

In 2006, the New York Times reported that suspected wings of the CIA network were operating out of Dubai and conducting training sessions every three months or so on civil disobedience, hoping to foment a nonviolent revolt in Iran. (67) (68)

In 2007 Michael Bolton, former ambassador to the United Nations during the presidency of George W Bush, told reporters that a military strike against Iran would be a last option after economic sanctions and attempts to foment a popular revolution had failed. (69) At some later point, the US and CIA decided to back opposition presidential candidate, Mir-Hossein Mousavi, for the Iranian presidential election set for June 12th, 2009.

US foreknowledge of ‘spontaneous’ unrest in Iran is evidenced through Kenneth Timmerman, an Amerikan neo-conservative, who a day before the election wrote, “There’s talk of a ‘green revolution’ in Iran.” Timmerman is the President and CEO of the US-based ‘Foundation for Democracy in Iran’ (a de-facto wing of the CIA) and an anti-Iranian propagandist and lobbyist. (70) (71)

On June 12th, before the official poll results were released, Mousavi declared himself the winner. When the official election results were released declaring the incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to have actually won, Mousavi, pro-capital media and the CIA network-trained activists in Iran called foul and launched massive street protests the next day. According to Paul Craig Roberts, “the claim was made that Ahmadinejad stole the election, because the outcome was declared too soon after the polls closed for all the votes to have been counted. However, Mousavi declared his victory several hours before the polls closed. This is classic CIA destabilization designed to discredit a contrary outcome. It forces an early declaration of the vote. The longer the time interval between the preemptive declaration of victory and the release of the vote tally, the longer Mousavi has to create the impression that the authorities are using the time to fix the vote.” (72)

Saudi-based Al Arabiya and most western-mainstream media jumped on the pro-‘Green Revolution’ bandwagon. (73) President Obama personally intervened by asking operators of the social media website Twitter to postpone scheduled maintenance so Iranian dissidents could continue to organize through the service. (74)  Where the CIA was most successful however was its ability to spawn an operation that was broadly supported by its own constituents within the United States, particularly amongst sections that nominally oppose imperialism and capital. Many Western ‘leftists,’ ‘radicals’ and ‘revolutionaries’ championed the cause of the Iranian ‘Green Revolution’ along with the CIA network. (75)

Because of the repressive force of the Iranian state and because the protesters did not genuinely represent a popular coalition within Iran, the CIA-backed ‘Green Revolution’ failed to install more pro-Western leaders and policies in Iran. However, that doesn’t mean the CIA has stopped targeting the Iranian state. Since the failed ‘Green Revolution’ in 2009, Iran has experienced cyber-attacks against its national defense and energy systems, and scientists connected with Iranian state projects are being killed under suspicious circumstances. (76)(77) During June of 2011, the Iranian state announced it arrested 30 people for allegedly working for the CIA inside Iran. (78) In November of 2011, the US and Israel ratcheted up their public opinion campaign against Iran, claiming that the latter’s supposed attempts at achieving the capability to build nuclear weapons is an imminent threat possibly requiring direct military intervention. (79)

In Libya in 2011, a similar operation was successful at overthrowing the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and murdering its leader, Muammar Qaddafi. In this case however, the CIA armed Libyan dissidents, recruited foreign fighters and decisively acted in support of a large-scale NATO air strike campaign.

Qaddafi came to power after a military coup against the US-backed King Idris in 1969. By the summer of 1970, the Amerikan Wheelus Airforce Base outside of Tripoli was closed. The Libyan economy was partially developed into a welfare state for the benefit of common Libyans and to be less dependent on Italy, France, the UK and US. (80)  Qaddafi was a public champion of causes such as Pan-Africanism, Pan-Arabism, Palestinian national liberation and anti-imperialism. Under Qaddafi, Libya became a training ground or tour stop for international revolutionaries and activists through the 1970’s and 80’s, and to a lesser degree continuing until the most recent events. Though never an official ally of the Soviet Union, Libya under Qaddafi was perceived by the US to be under its tutelage and direction and was vigorously targeted throughout the 1980’s and beyond. In 1981, the US funded and armed Libyan exiles in neighboring Chad, from where terrorist attacks against the Jamahiriya were launched. (81) In 1986, the US bombed one of Qaddafi’s residences, killing several of his family members including his adopted daughter. (82) During the 1990’s Qaddafi claimed his government had crushed an Islamic movement of Afghans supplied with intelligence from the US. (83)

Beginning in the early 2000’s, the Qaddafi-led Libyan government began working with the United States and Europe, signed onto the US-led ‘War on Terror,’ opened the country up to capital and partially served Western imperialism’s strategic ends in the region. (84) (85) During the presidential administration of George W. Bush, the CIA and Libyan state cooperated with each other in the rendition and torturing of suspected terrorists. (86) (87) However, after the eruption of genuine civil conflict during the 2011 Arab Spring, the CIA network seized on the opportunity to back anti-Qaddafi forces in Libya, aided NATO’s bombing campaign and succeed in installing a new regime indebted to such imperialist sponsorship.

On February 17th, following a wave of popular demonstrations in the region, protests against Qaddafi erupted in cities around north Libya and were met with violent repression by state forces. As typically occurs, the repression spawned growing outrage and civil unrest. Anti-Qaddafi forces rallied around the flag of the former Libyan monarchy, and violent clashes with state and pro-Qaddafi forces left scores dead in cities such as Benghazi.

Bourgeois media and individual powerholders led the charge in building international public opinion against the Libyan government. (88) (89) Al-Jazeera, owned by members of the Qatari royal family, virtually ignored similar violent state responses to protests throughout the Arabian peninsula while carrying widespread coverage of unrest in Libya, as well as passed on outright lies to the public. (90) (91) (92) During the first days of widespread civil unrest, the violence of the anti-government forces was minimized and that of the Libyan state widely reported. On February 21st, the same day protesters set fire to several government buildings in Tripoli, mainstream media was abuzz with false reporting that Qaddafi had fled the country to Venezuela. (93) (94) Similar false reporting of Qaddafi’s flight or death would reoccur during the next months as fighting wore on. Another widely circulated lie was that the Qaddafi-led government distributed Viagra to its fighters and instructed them to commit rape of protesters and their sympathizers. Despite there being no evidence behind the claim, it was made by the US ambassador to the UN, Susan Rice, and was thus reported as truth. (95) (96) Frequently reported were ‘imminent full-scale attacks’ against ‘rebels.’ (97) As noted by commentator Yoshie Furuhashi, ‘rebel’ CIA-front organizations such as the National Front for the Salvation of Libya were regularly presented to the public as credible sources for information and alternative Libyan leadership. (98) (99)

On February 26th, the UN Security Council voted to enact economic sanctions against the Libyan state. (100) This was the first of many measures designed to give future open military action the veneer of legality. The US itself froze 30 billion dollars in assets of those tied to Qaddafi and the Libyan state, promising to return the money following a settlement on who would rule the post-Jamahiriya Libya. (101) (102)

Into March, wide media attention was given to calls by ‘rebels’ for Western military intervention in the form of airstrikes and the enforcement of a no-fly zone. (103) On March 14th, Khalifa Hifter, a former Libyan commander and suspected CIA agent, arrived in Benghazi, what was then the de facto center of the ‘rebel’ government, to act as a military chief for the newly formed National Transitional Council (TNC). (104) At the same time, additional US and European ‘intelligence operations’ were launched to assess the possibility of directly aiding armed anti-state violence throughout Libya. The CIA had helped instigate a civil war in which its networked militaries could directly intervene.

By March 17th, the United States and France pushed through a United Nations Security Council resolution authorizing the use of force ‘to protect Libyan civilians.’ (105)  On March 19th France, which had officially recognized the TNC as its go-to rulers in Libya beginning on March 10th, was the first to bomb the country in support of this faction. (106) (107) Airstrikes by forces under US and UK command were launched shortly after. In the initial days and weeks, it seemed even those carrying out the bombings were unsure who was leading the overall mission, which was later passed off to the public as a NATO policing operation. (108) (109) Between March 31st and October 23rd, NATO forces conducted nearly 10,000 strike sorties and fired over 50,000 bombs or missiles. (110)

During the NATO campaign in support of the Libya rebels, a number of human rights abuses were recorded. In the months of fighting, ‘rebel’ fighters disappeared and executed suspected Qaddafi supporters, illegally detained thousands, carried out indiscriminate attacks and lynchings against dark-skinned Africans, and partook in other human rights abuses. (111) Along with NATO bombing, TNC ‘rebels’ carried out a wave of terror upon civilians and populations perceived to be sympathetic to the Jamahiriya. Amnesty International recorded routine abductions, detentions, beatings, torture and killings carried out by the ‘rebels’ in cities they had captured. Sirte, a city of 100,000, the hometown of Qaddafi and a hold-out of loyalist resistance, was virtually destroyed by NATO/’rebel’ bombing and shelling, and hundreds of the survivors were executed. (112) An estimated 30,000 people were killed during the CIA-supported Libyan civil war. (113)

The individual human tragedy caused by the violent campaign was documented by Khaled El-Hamedi. In a public testimonial following the June 20th bombing of his home, he wrote:

“[M]y country witnessed what now clearly seems to be a Western organized attack…, starting with protests fueled by comments such as those by British Foreign Minister William Hague when he said our leader Muammar Gaddafi had fled to Venezuela. Western media outlets and some Arab channels such as Al-Arabiya and Al-Jazeera helped to escalate the situation which then resulted in the NATO bombardment of my country since March 2011. I decided to stay in my country despite the devastation from the NATO campaign to help the civilians, especially the children, to cope with this war.

“I am the son of a well-known Libyan army leader and that seems to be enough for some media to broadcast the lie that I had a personal militia that was attacking Libyan civilians. Like so many other stories this has been a complete fabrication.

“My children used to ask me what the noises were from the NATO bombing raids on our country. To try [to] ensure my children would not get too upset I told them that they are fireworks and assured them that we soon would go and visit Euro-Disney, something they had always wanted to do.

“[T]ragedy befell my family after my Son Khweldis third birthday, NATO attacked my family home in Sorman with seven bombs, killing my Son Khweldi, my pregnant Wife Sala, my daughter Khalida who was four and a half years old and Salam who was one and a half years old, and our chef Bashir. They have claimed it was a military site, but it was the family farm house to which we used to invite Libyan children and orphans to see our small collection of animals and to enjoy the grounds of our farm…” (114)

Clandestine state terrorist organizations, the CIA and British MI6, were inside the country providing the logistical support for NATO bombing and to provide assistance to the rebels from a very early stage in all of this, as admitted by bourgeois media outlets. (115) (116)

Through March and April, Libyan exiles returned to staff prominent positions in the newly created TNC ‘rebel’ government, which had quickly signed trade agreements with and was being recognized as the legitimate ruling authority by neighboring states like Qatar and established imperialist powers such as the UK and US. (117) (118) (119) On June 27th, the International Criminal Court, an instrument of imperialism to selectively apply the appearance of justice, issued an arrest warrant for Qaddafi based on human rights abuses. (120)

After eight months of non-stop CIA/NATO/’rebel’ terror, a convoy Qaddafi was traveling in was hit by a NATO air strike and routed by TNC fighters. Initial reports indicated he was shot in the head by crossfire, though a video later emerged showing the deposed leader being tortured and sodomized with a knife before being shot in the head at close range. (121) (122) The US Secretary of State at the time, Hilary Clinton, on camera remarked glibly with colonial undertones upon hearing the news: “We came, we saw, he died.” (123)

A public opinion campaign involving those connected to the CIA network; CIA aid, leadership and training to Libyan ‘rebels;’ and a NATO bombing campaign aided by the CIA were all factors leading to the fall of Qaddafi. Another was the presence of foreign anti-Qaddafi fighters. Early on, the bourgeois press admitted that the ‘rebel’ movement included Islamists, including self-professed members of Al Qaeda, who had previous participated in attacks against US military forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. (124)  As well, the CIA reportedly recruited around 1,500 fighters, mainly Uzbeks, from one city in northern Afghanistan to fight in Libya. (125)  The idea that Qaddafi was overthrown merely by Libyans is a simply not true.

Qatar played a proxy role for US interests in Libya and acted in tangent with CIA actions aimed to topple the Libyan government. The tiny oil-rich country on the Arab peninsula, itself ruled by an hereditary monarchy, sent between hundreds and 5,000 ground troops to aid in the take over, as well as contributed money and military hardware. (126) (127)  Mussa Kussa, the former Foreign Minister of the Jamahiriya and main contact for the CIA and MI6, defected from the government and fled the country at the onset of the NATO bombing campaign and has since been tracked to Qatar. (128) (129) As previously mentioned, Al Jazeera, based in Qatar, was instrumental in shaping public opinion as part of the effort to topple the Libyan regime.

By the end of October, a dual US-Libyan citizen had been ‘elected’ as prime minister of the TNC. (130)  For representatives of finance capital, picking out, supporting and propping up native ‘progressives’ and ‘democrats’ is nothing new. It is what colonization has always been about. However, some results of the CIA are more uncertain. For example, since the imperial takeover, Tripoli has witnessed the creep of Sharia law. The TNC has publicly announced the country’s new legal system would be based on guidelines drawn from the Koran, a system previously abandoned following the formation of the Jamahiriya. Since October, Qaddafi-era fashion shows have been shut down by protesters and women have been harassed by mobs for wearing shorts or make-up in the streets of the capital. (131)

Beyond lingering questions about the future of women’s, secular and minority rights now that the CIA has installed its allies into power in Libya, there has been much speculation as to the larger results of the fall of the Jamahiriya government.

One clear result was the undermining of the African Union as an authoritative governing body on the continent. By April 10th the AU had brokered a cease-fire and peace deal which was rejected by the TNC. (132)  As well, the African Union protested the NATO bombing campaign and called for its end, to no avail. (133)  On August 29th, the continental body still refused to recognize the TNC, despite Western pressure, over reporting that the anti-Qaddafi ‘rebels’ were targeting dark-skinned Africans during their violent upheaval. It is foreseeable that the TNC government, backed as it is by the US and Qatar, will continue to act against the interests of African unity.

It is likely that the overthrow of the Jamahiriya and installation of a client state there will free the US’s hand for intervention elsewhere. Immediately after the ‘success’ of the CIA’s operations in Libya, the US sent troops into the interior of the east African country of Uganda, and the West heightened threats against Iran. (134) (135) Whatever the results, it is likely to be in direct contradiction to the interest of the vast majority of people in Africa, the Middle East and the world.

As with the CIA’s failed adventure in Iran, the Libyan color revolution of 2011 was able to garner widespread support from Western leftists who were all too eager to swallow the CIA line of a popular democratic uprising. (136)

===================

55 Pitzke, Marc. “Remote Warriors: How Drone Pilots Wage War. Spiegal Online . N.p., 12 Mar. 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. <http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,682420,00.html&gt;.

56 Scahill, Jeremy. “The CIA’s Secret Sites in Somalia.” The Nation. N.p., 12 July 2011. Web. 9 Nov. 2011. <http://www.thenation.com/print/article/161936/cias-secret-sites-somalia&gt;.

57 PakistanBodyCount.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. <http://pakistanbodycount.org&gt;.

58 “TBIJ.” The Bureau of Investigative Journalism. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. <http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/&gt;.

59 Meyssan, Thierry. “The Albert Einstein Institution: Non-Violence According to the CIA.” Voltaire.net. N.p., 4 Jan. 2005. Web. 31 Oct. 2011. <www.voltairenet.org/The-Albert-Einstein-Institution>.

60 William Blum describes the NED as an organization “which often does exactly the opposite of what its name implies.” p. 238

Allen Weinstein, a co-founder of the NED, declared in 1991, “A lot of what we do today was done covertly by the CIA 25 years ago.” qtd in. Blum. Ibid. pg 239

61 Meyssan, Thierry. “Color revolution fails in Iran.” Voltaire Network. N.p., 27 June 2009. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.voltairenet.org/Color-revolution-fails-in-Iran&gt;.

62 Qtd. In Blum. Ibid. pg 239

63 Blum. Ibid. pg 241

64 Meyssan, Thierry. “Color revolution fails in Iran.” Voltaire Network. N.p., 27 June 2009. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.voltairenet.org/Color-revolution-fails-in-Iran&gt;.

65 Ibid.

“Coalition for Democracy in Iran – Profile.” Right Web . Institute for Policy Studies, 5 Dec. 2007. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.rightweb.irc-online.org/profile/Coalition_for_Democracy_in_Iran&gt;.

66 Gowans, Stephen . “Scholars or Bamboozlers? .” what’s left. N.p., 10 Apr. 2011. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://gowans.wordpress.com/2011/04/10/scholars-or-bamboozlers/&gt;.

67 Fattah, Hassan M.. “U.S. keeps finger on pulse of Iran from Dubai.” The New York Times . N.p., 20 Oct. 2006. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/20/world/africa/20iht-dubai.3599789.html&gt;.

68 Gowans, Stephen. “Reply to Peace Activist Stellan Vinthagen.” what’s left. N.p., 23 Nov. 2010. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://gowans.wordpress.com/2010/11/23/reply-to-peace-activist-stellan-vinthagen/&gt;.

69 Qtd in. Roberts, Paul Craig. “Are the Iranian Protests Another US Orchestrated “Color Revolution?”.” Counterpunch. N.p., 19 June 2009. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.counterpunch.org/2009/06/19/are-the-iranian-protests-another-us-orchestrated-quot-color-revolution-quot/&gt;.

70 Qtd in. Roberts, Paul Craig. “Are the Iranian Protests Another US Orchestrated “Color Revolution?”.” Counterpunch. N.p., 19 June 2009. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.counterpunch.org/2009/06/19/are-the-iranian-protests-another-us-orchestrated-quot-color-revolution-quot/&gt;.

71 “About FDI.” Foundation for Democracy in Iran. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.iran.org/about.htm&gt;.

72 Roberts, Paul Craig. “Are the Iranian Protests Another US Orchestrated “Color Revolution?”.” Counterpunch. N.p., 19 June 2009. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.counterpunch.org/2009/06/19/are-the-iranian-protests-another-us-orchestrated-quot-color-revolution-quot/&gt;.

73 Pollock, David, and Mohammad Yaghi. “Saudi media takes the lead against Iran’s regime.” The Cutting Edge News. N.p., 29 June 2009. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://www.thecuttingedgenews.com/index.php?article=11423&gt;.

74 Keall, Chris. “Twitter answers Obama plea: delays shutdown for Iranians’ sake.” The National Business Review. N.p., 17 June 2009. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nbr.co.nz/article/twitter-answers-obama-plea-delays-shutdown-iranians-sake-103851&gt;.

75 Ely, Mike. “Iran: They are Right to Rebel! And We Have Responsibilities..” Kasama. N.p., 17 July 2009. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://kasamaproject.org/2009/06/17/iran-it-is-right-to-rebel/&gt;.

Torres, Juan Gonzalez & Joseph. “Crackdown in Iran: Up to 12 Dead, Hundreds Arrested in Opposition Protests.” Democracy Now!. N.p., 28 Dec. 2009. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.democracynow.org/2009/12/28/crackdown_in_iran_up_to_12&gt;.

76 Gowans, Stephen. “Who Is Killing Iran’s Nuclear Scientists – And Why?.” what’s left. N.p., 26 July 2011. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://gowans.wordpress.com/2011/07/26/who-is-killing-iran’s-nuclear-scientists-–-and-why/&gt;.

77 Shuster, Mike. “Inside The United States’ Secret Sabotage Of Iran” NPR. N.p., 9 May 2011. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.npr.org/2011/05/09/135854490/inside-the-united-states-secret-sabotage-of-iran&gt;.

78 MacFarquharm, Neil. “Iran Reports Arrest of U.S. Spy Ring .” The New York Times. N.p., 22 June 2011. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/23/world/middleeast/23tehran.html?_r=1&gt;.

79 Lappin, Yaakov. “Strike fallout can never be as nuclear Iran.” The Jerusalam Post. N.p., 23 Nov. 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://www.jpost.com/IranianThreat/News/Article.aspx?id=246745&gt;.

Ariel, Johnathan. “Israel Needs A Preemptive Nuclear Strike Against Iran.” Israel News Agency. N.p., 24 June 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://www.israelnewsagency.com/iranisraelnuclearariel3890624.html&gt;.

Hopkins, Nick. “UK military steps up plans for Iran attack amid fresh nuclear fears.” The Guardian . N.p., 2 Nov. 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/02/uk-military-iran-attack-nuclear&gt;.

“Iran nuclear issue is ‘deep concern’ – world powers.” BBC. N.p., 17 Nov. 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-15771534&gt;.

80 Kovalik, Dan. “NATO’s Great Victory Destroying Libya’s Welfare State.” Global Civilians For Peace In Libya. N.p., 23 Nov. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://globalciviliansforpeace.com/2011/11/23/natos-great-victory-destroying-libyas-welfare-state/#more-2894&gt;.

81 Blum, William. Rogue state: a guide to the world’s only superpower. Monroe: Common Courage Press, 2000. p 195-196. Print.

82 Blum, William. Rogue state: a guide to the world’s only superpower. Monroe: Common Courage Press, 2000. p 198. Print.

Joshi, Shashank. “Death of Saif Al-Arab Gaddafi may backfire for Nato.” BBC. N.p., 1 May 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13252192&gt;.

83 Qtd in. Blum, William. Rogue state: a guide to the world’s only superpower. Monroe: Common Courage Press, 2000. p 47-48. Print.

84 “Libya: Gaddafi regime’s US-UK spy links revealed.” BBC News. N.p., 3 Sept. 2011. Web. 11 Oct. 1931. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14774533&gt;.

85 Donadio, Rachel. “Libyan Leader Qaddafi Visits Italy.” The New York Times. N.p., 11 June 2009. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/11/world/europe/11italy.html&gt;.

86 Gorman, Siobhan, Charles Levinson, and Margaret Coker. “Tripoli Files Show CIA Working With Libya.” The Wall Street Journal. N.p., 3 Sept. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424053111903895904576547101159155100.html&gt;

87 To give an idea of his corruption regards to foreign policy: up until the moment NATO began its bombing campaign, Qaddafi publicly lauded Obama and claimed his opposition movement was made up of Al Qaeda. Qaddafi’s claim inadvertently raises an interesting rhetorical point: If the US can shoot, bomb and disappear ‘suspected terrorists,’ why can’t the Jamahiriya? In another sense, i.e. the basic claim that the Libyan opposition contained Islamic militants and Al Qaeda members, Qaddafi was essentially correct. This fact was admitted fairly early on by bourgeois media.

“What’s Happening in Libya Explained.” Mother Jones. N.p., 20 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://motherjones.com/mojo/2011/02/whats-happening-libya-explained&gt;.

Swami, Praveen. “Libyan rebel commander admits his fighters have al-Qaeda links .” Telegraph.co.uk. N.p., 25 Mar. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8407047/Libyan-rebel-commander-admits-his-fighters-have-al-Qaeda-links.html&gt;.

88 Most media outlets are owned and controlled by a handful of parent companies. General Electric, a major military manufacturer owns significant or majority shares of NBC, MSNBC, Telemundo, Universal Studios, the History Channel and A&E. Walt Disney owns ABC and ESPN, 277 radio stations, Hiberian books, Marvel Comics, Touchstone and Miramax. News Corp. owns the Fox Broadcasting Company, the National Geographic television channel, the Wall Street Journal, the New York Post, The Daily Telegraph (UK) and the Dow Jones Newswire. Time Warner owns CNN and more that 150 magazines. CBS owns 30 television stations, 130 radio stations and a number of publishing companies.

“Ownership Chart: The Big Six.” Free Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.freepress.net/ownership/chart/main&gt;.

89 Lendman, Stephen. “Pack Journalism Anti-Gaddafi Propaganda.” SteveLendmanBlog. N.p., 23 Nov. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://sjlendman.blogspot.com/2011/07/pack-journalism-anti-gaddafi-propaganda.html&gt;.

90 Iqbal, Martin. “Al Jazeera lies again: U.S. Government unable to confirm use of naval forces on Latakia | empirestrikesblack.” empirestrikesblack. N.p., 16 Aug. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://empirestrikesblack.com/2011/08/al-jazeera-lies-again-u-s-government-unable-to-confirm-use-of-naval-forces-on-latakia/&gt;.

91 “Al Jazeera head quits after CIA links row.” ManamaPress.net. N.p., 21 Sept. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://manamapress.net/?p=3506&gt;.

92 “Al-Jazeera serves Israeli interests.” Press TV. N.p., 11 Nov. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.presstv.ir/detail/209561.html&gt;.

93 Black, Ian, and Mathew Taylor. ” Libya protesters set fire to government buildings in Tripoli.” The Guardian . N.p., 21 Feb. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/21/libya-protesters-fire-government-tripoli&gt;.

94 Black, Ian, and Mathew Taylor. ” Libya protesters set fire to government buildings in Tripoli.” The Guardian . N.p., 21 Feb. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/feb/21/libya-protesters-fire-government-tripoli&gt;.

95 Lendman, Stephen. “Pack Journalism Anti-Gaddafi Propaganda.” SteveLendmanBlog. N.p., 23 Nov. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://sjlendman.blogspot.com/2011/07/pack-journalism-anti-gaddafi-propaganda.html&gt;.

96 “Viagra allegations raised amid Libya divisions at UN.” Google. AFP, 28 Apr. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011.

97 “INTERVIEW-Libya plans full offensive against rebels-Gaddafi son| Energy & Oil| Reuters.” Reuters.com. N.p., 10 Mar. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFLDE7292GL20110310&gt;.

98 Furuhashi, Yoshie. “What Is the National Front for the Salvation of Libya?.” MRZine.org. N.p., 24 Feb. 2011. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. <http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/2011/furuhashi240211.html&gt;.

99 Stanik, Joseph T.. El Dorado Canyon: Reagan’s undeclared war with Qaddafi. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2003. p 41. Print.

100 “Libya: UN Security Council votes sanctions on Gaddafi.” BBC News. N.p., 27 Feb. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12589434&gt;.

101 Culter, David. “Timeline: Libya’s uprising against Muammar Gaddafi.” Reuters.com. N.p., 22 Aug. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/22/us-libya-events-idUSTRE77K2QH20110822&gt;.

Sorcher, Sara. “U.S. Freezes $30 Billion in Libyan Assets, Making Contingency Plans.” NationalJournal.com. N.p., 1 Mar. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nationaljournal.com/nationalsecurity/u-s-freezes-30-billion-in-libyan-assets-making-contingency-plans-20110228&gt;.

102 It is likely that future Libyan leaders and especially the Libyan people will see the return of a small fraction of this money. After all it will be the US and other interveners who will truly rule a post-Jamahiriya Libya.

103 Sengupta, Kim. “Why won’t you help, Libyan rebels ask West.” NZ Herald. N.p., 11 Mar. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=10711553&gt;.

104 North, David. “A CIA commander for the Libyan rebels.” World Socialist Web Site. N.p., 28 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <http://www.wsws.org/articles/2011/mar2011/pers-m28.shtml&gt;.

105 “Security Council authorizes all necessary measures to protect civilians in Libya.” United Nations. N.p., 17 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=37808&gt;.

106 “Libya: France recognises rebels as government.” BBC. N.p., 10 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12699183&gt;.

107 “Libya: French plane fires on military vehicle.” BBC. N.p., 19 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12795971&gt;.

108 NATO, like the CIA, is another organization which has outlived its original purpose of halting the spread of ‘international communism’ and has since merely serve to enforce compliance of non-member states to the modern economic order.

109 “NATO taking command of air operations in Libya | CTV News.” CTV News. N.p., 27 Mar. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/TopStories/20110327/libya-rebels-westward-push-110327/&gt;.

110 Chossudovsky, Michel. “Almost 10,000 Combat Missions: NATO Still Bombing Libya.” GlobalResearch.ca. Centre for Research on Globalization, 23 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=27249&gt;.

111 ” Libyan rebels detaining thousands illegally, Ban Ki-moon reports.” The Guardian . N.p., 23 Nov. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/nov/24/libya-illegal-detentions-un-report&gt;.

112 Marsden, Chris. “Sirte destroyed by NTC-NATO offensive in Libya.” World Socialist Web Site. N.p., 8 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.wsws.org/articles/2011/oct2011/liby-o18.shtml&gt;.

113 Laub, Karin. “Libya: Estimated 30,000 Died In War; 4,000 Still Missing.” The Huffington Post. N.p., 8 Sept. 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2011. <www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/09/08/libya-war-died_n_953456.html>.

114 El-Hamedi, Khaled K. “Testimony of a Libyan man who has filed a lawsuit against NATO for killing his family « Eccleza.” Eccleza. N.p., 5 Nov. 2011. Web. 8 Nov. 2011. <http://eccleza.net/2011/11/05/testimony-of-a-libyan-man-who-has-filed-a-lawsuit-against-nato-for-killing-his-family/&gt;.

El-Hamedi, Khaled K.. “Massacre of the El-Hamedi Family.” http://www.khaleda.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Oct. 2011. <www.khaleda.org/brochure.pdf>.

115 Rayner, Gordan. “Libya: secret role played by Britain creating path to the fall of Tripoli.” Telegraph.co.uk. N.p., 22 Aug. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8716758/Libya-secret-role-played-by-Britain-creating-path-to-the-fall-of-Tripoli.html&gt;.

116 Mazzetti, Mark. “Clandestine C.I.A. Operatives Gather Information in Libya.” The New York Times. N.p., 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/31/world/africa/31intel.html?_r=1&gt;.

117 “Qatar recognises Libyan rebels after oil deal.” Al Jazeera English. N.p., 28 Mar. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/03/201132814450241767.html&gt;.

118 Cowell, Alan. “France Becomes First Country to Recognize Libyan Rebels – NYTimes.com.” The New York Times. N.p., 10 Mar. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/11/world/europe/11france.html&gt;.

119 “UK expels Gaddafi diplomats and recognises Libya rebels.” BBC News. N.p., 27 July 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-14306544&gt;.

120 Black, Ian, and David Smith. “War crimes court issues Gaddafi arrest warrant.” The Guardian . N.p., 27 June 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jun/27/muammar-gaddafi-arrest-warrant-hague&gt;.

121 Sheridan, Mary Beth. “Moammar Gaddafi killed in rebel custody as last loyalist holdout in Libya falls.” The Washington Post. N.p., 20 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/gaddafis-home-town-overrun-conflicting-reports-on-his-fate/2011/10/20/gIQAMwTB0L_story.html&gt;.

122 Hanrahan, Mark. “Gaddafi Sodomized? Video Shows Libyan Leader Attacked By Captors (WARNING: Graphic).” The Huffington Post. N.p., 24 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/24/gaddafi-sodomized-video_n_1028970.html&gt;.

Shelton, Tracy. “Gaddafi sodomized: Video shows abuse frame by frame.” Global Post. N.p., 24 Oct. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/middle-east/111024/gaddafi-sodomized-video-gaddafi-sodomy&gt;.

123 Daly, Corbett. “Clinton on Qaddafi: “We came, we saw, he died” – Political Hotsheet – CBS News.” CBS News. N.p., 20 Oct. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20123348-503544.html&gt;.

124 Swami, Praveen. “Libyan rebel commander admits his fighters have al-Qaeda links .” Telegraph.co.uk. N.p., 25 Mar. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8407047/Libyan-rebel-commander-admits-his-fighters-have-al-Qaeda-links.html&gt;.

125 Masood, Azhar. “CIA recruits 1,500 from Mazar-e-Sharif to fight in Libya.” The Nation (Pakistan). N.p., 31 Aug. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Politics/31-Aug-2011/CIA-recruits-1500-from-MazareSharif-to-fight-in-Libya&gt;.

126 “Qatar recognises Libyan rebels after oil deal” Al Jazeera English. N.p., 28 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/03/201132814450241767.html&gt;.

127 “5,000 Qatari Troops Help Colonize Libya.” Voltaire Network. N.p., 7 Nov. 2011. Web. 7 Nov. 2011. <www.voltairenet.org/5-000-Qatari-troops-helped-to>.

128 Foley, James. “Documents show high level of cooperation between CIA and Gaddafi regime – GlobalPost.” GlobalPost. N.p., 5 Sept. 2011. Web. 26 Nov. 2011. <http://www.globalpost.com/dispatches/globalpost-blogs/the-casbah/libya-documents-show-cooperation-between-cia-and-gaddafi&gt;.

129 Spencer, Richard. “Moussa Koussa found in Qatar.” Telegraph.co.uk. N.p., 27 June 2011. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.

130 Sheridan, Mary Beth. “Dual U.S.-Libyan citizen chosen as prime minister of Libya.” The Washington Post. N.p., 31 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/nato-formally-ends-libya-bombing-campaign/2011/10/31/gIQAtiObZM_story.html&gt;.

131 Stephen, Christopher. “Libya’s Islamists Ransack Mosque Graves.” Bloomberg. N.p., 17 Nov. 2011. Web. 24 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-11-16/libya-s-islamists-ransack-mosque-graves.html&gt;.

132 Ditz, Jason. “Libya Rebels Reject Ceasefire, War Continues — News from Antiwar.com .” Antiwar.com . N.p., 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://news.antiwar.com/2011/04/11/libya-rebels-reject-ceasefire-war-continues/&gt;.

133 Tekle, Tesfa-Alem. ” Libya: African Leaders Urge Nato to Stop Airstrikes.” allAfrica.com. N.p., 26 May 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2011. <http://allafrica.com/stories/201105270613.html&gt;.

134 Moreno, Antonio. “U.S. Imperialism Creeps Into Uganda, Central Africa Under Guise of Human Rights.” Anti-Imperialism.com. N.p., 14 Nov. 2011. Web. 26 Nov. 2011. <http://anti-imperialism.com/2011/11/14/u-s-imperialism-creeps-into-uganda-central-africa-under-guise-of-human-rights/&gt;.

135. Shipman, Tim. “UN report: Iran IS trying to build nuclear bomb warns William Hague.” DailyMail.co.uk. N.p., 10 Nov. 2011. Web. 26 Nov. 2011. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2059462/UN-report-Iran-IS-trying-build-nuclear-bomb-warns-William-Hague.html&gt;.

136. “Defend the Libyan revolution.” Socialist Party. N.p., 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 28 Jan. 2012. <http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/11582&gt;.

Stickton, Dave. “Should socialists support the Libyan revolution?.” League for the Fifth International. N.p., 22 Aug. 2011. Web. 28 Jan. 2012. <http://www.fifthinternational.org/content/should-socialists-support-libyan-revolution&gt;.

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