]Rarely do we repost content from other sites, even those affiliated with our cause. We respect the direction and authorship of our recommended sites and wish not to impede their development. However, we are reposting the following with the official approval of the author and editor of the original site. The original post can be viewed here.

Part of our advocacy at Anti-imperialism includes promoting the science of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism and the dialectical materialist method of investigation and analysis. We are always looking to reassert the truth of this method and successfully apply it to contemporary conditions. The following is a great example of material analysis regarding a nationally oppressed group being the indigenous population within Amerika. We encourage further development of this analysis and similar struggles pending further investigation.

All of the following is the unique content of Onkwehón:we Rising and has been reposted for educational purposes. This is not an official endorsement and the written content of the author does not necessarily reflect positions held at Anti-imperialism.]

The following is a snapshot of the basic socio-economic markers for one Onkwehón:we community in north amerika, the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in the Dakotas. Pine Ridge is of course the home/prison of the Oglála Lakotah, and the site of many heroic resistances and tragedies in our history.

While these numbers are drawn from Pine Ridge it should be noted that if one were to only change the names and locales, this article could just as easily be used to describe countless other nations and their prison camps from northern kanada to the settler border with Mexiko, including, the Diné, Nunt’zi, Papago, Pima, Yaqui, Ani’yunwi’ya, Chahta, Ndeh, many Anishinabek nations, Mamaceqtaw and others.

One thing that becomes clear with an honest materialist examination of our material conditions is that our oppressed and colonized peoples have far more in common with the global proletariat, concentrated in the exploited nations of the Third World, than we do with the parasitic settler nation of north amerika, much less the rest of the imperialist nations. While embourgeoisification is a contradiction that all colonized peoples that live with the core countries must deal with, these numbers (as well as many others) demonstrate that this process is still largely defined along lines of national oppression and settler-colonialism.

One set of numbers that are really touched upon in the socio-economic data below is the question of income. Today, in the heart of the imperial united states 20% of Onkwehón:we households have an income of less than $5,000 and while many communities have seen economic development in recent years, in particular with the growth of casino gaming, most Onkwehón:we still earn less than the global abstract value of labour (roughly $20,000 a year).

In terms of the communities not involved in “Indian Gaming” the lowest average Onkwehón:we income is that of the Crow Creek community at $4,034, while the highest is the St. Regis Mohawk at $12,016. For those involved in gambling, Texas Kickapoo average $3,398, with only the higher end casino-owning nations seeing average incomes higher than the abstract value of labour. In this case, even the highest earning community, the Viejas in California, earn $28,128, which is well below the amerikan national average of $51,000. This puts to lie many myths within north amerika that Onkwehón:we communities with access to casinos are living life-styles reflective of those of the most opulently wealthy settlers.

The statistics on this matter are only slightly better to the north of the settler border. In kanada the average income of “aboriginals” (a group consisting of Indians, Metis and Inuit) was $18,962, and slightly lower at $15,958 for those living within on reserves. Both are these are of course well below the average “non-aboriginal” kanadian income of $36,000.

The question of economic development of course raises many important questions about our path forward. Many forces, from neocolonial Indian capitalists to nominally left forces, would tell us that our only way upward is to develop more towards the status of the settler nation. While this is to be expected of forces pushing a capitalist development agenda, when it comes from nominally left-wing forces (both Native and non-Native) it reveals their inherently First Worldist and settlerist politics. As we mentioned earlier, these kinds of politics are based on the idea that solution to our current status that by virtue of also being subsumed within the wider “North American working class” proletarian Natives can, indeed should, work to build unity with the workers of the settler nation and struggle towards socialism in north amerika. This however, as we also said:

“[U]nderestimates the consequences of parasitism upon the settler nation and the relationship of the settler working class to both the nationally oppressed domestic colonies as well as the general global proletariat. Simply put parasitism has allowed the majority of workers within the imperialist nations to become elevated well above the workers of the Third World, and even those of the internal colonies, in terms of wages, standards of living and other privileges.”

These kinds of politics do not actually off tactics and strategies that confront the structure of the global parasitic capitalist system, but rather are a concession to petty bourgeois idealism. Again, as was recently noted on this site:

As such there is nothing for our liberation movement to be gained by subsuming ourselves within the movement of the largely parasitic settler working class, and in fact we directly risk openly integrating ourselves into north amerikan imperialism. thus placing ourselves on the wrong side of history. Our path to liberation lies in allying ourselves not only with the other domestic colonies of north amerika (Afrikans, Xikanos and Borricanos), but also with the global proletariat, the true proletariat, which is located principally within the exploited nations of the global periphery, the so-called “Third World”.

The Stats

Employment Information

  • The unemployment rate in the community is between 83 and 85%, with higher fluctuations during the winter months when conditions make travel difficult.
  • As of the year 2006, 97% of the population lives below the federal poverty level
  • It is made even more difficult to find employment by the fact that the nearest city (Rapid City) is 120 miles from the reservation, while the nearest large city (Denver) is 350 miles.

Life Expectancy and Health Conditions

  • Some figures state that the life expectancy on the Reservation is 48 years old for men and 52 for women. Other reports state that the average life expectancy on the Reservation is 45 years old. These statistics are far from the 77.5 years of age life expectancy average found in the United States as a whole. According to current USDA Rural Development documents, the Lakota have the lowest life expectancy of any group in amerika. For a global comparison, one can look at life expectancy in Azania (51.6), Haiti (61.4), India (64.1) Jamaica (72.1), Peru (73.5), Libya (74.5) and Mexico (75.3).
  • Teenage suicide rates are roughly 150% higher than they are for the rest of the country
  • The infant mortality rate is the highest on this continent and is about 300% higher than the u.s. national average.
  • More than half the Reservation’s adults battle addiction and disease. Alcoholism, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and malnutrition are pervasive.
  • The rate of diabetes on the Reservation is reported to be 800% higher than the u.s. national average.
  • Recent reports indicate that almost 50% of the adults on the Reservation over the age of 40 have diabetes.
  • As a result of the high rate of diabetes on the Reservation, diabetic-related blindness, amputations, and kidney failure are common.
  • The tuberculosis rate on the Pine Ridge Reservation is approximately 800% higher than the u.s. national average.
  • Cervical cancer is 500% higher than the u.s. national average.
  • It is reported that at least 60% of the homes on the Pine Ridge Reservation are infested with Black Mold, Stachybotrys. This infestation causes an often-fatal condition with infants, children, elderly, those with damaged immune systems, and those with lung and pulmonary conditions at the highest risk. Exposure to this mold can cause hemorrhaging of the lungs and brain as well as cancer.
  • A Federal Commodity Food Program is active but supplies mostly inappropriate foods (high in carbohydrate and/or sugar) for the largely diabetic population of the Reservation.

Health Care

  • Many Reservation residents live without health care due to vast travel distances involved in accessing that care. Additional factors include under-funded, under-staffed medical facilities and outdated or non-existent medical equipment.
  • Preventive healthcare programs are rare or non-existent.
  • In most of the treaties between the u.s. Government and Indian Nations, the u.s. government agreed to provide adequate medical care for Indians in return for vast quantities of land. The Indian Health Services (IHS) was set up to administer the health care for Indians under these treaties and receives an appropriation each year to fund Indian health care. Unfortunately, the appropriation is very small compared to the need and there is little hope for increased funding from Congress. The IHS is understaffed and ill-equipped and can’t possibly address the needs of Indian communities. Nowhere is this more apparent than on the Pine Ridge Reservation.


  • The school drop-out rate is a staggering 70%.
  • According to a Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) report, the Pine Ridge Reservation schools are in the bottom 10% of school funding by U.S. Department of Education and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Teacher turnover is 800% that of the u.s. national average

Housing Conditions and Homelessness

  • The small BIA/Tribal Housing Authority homes on the Pine Ridge Reservation are overcrowded and scarce, resulting in many homeless families who often use tents or cars for shelter. Many families live in old cabins or dilapidated mobile homes and trailers.
  • According to a 2003 report from South Dakota State University, the majority of the current Tribal Housing Authority homes were built from 1970-1979. The report brings to light that a great percentage of that original construction by the BIA was “shoddy and substandard.” The report also states that 26% of the housing units on the Reservation are mobile homes, often purchased or obtained (through donations) as used, low-value units with negative-value equity.
  • Even though there is a large homeless population on the Reservation, most families never turn away a relative no matter how distant the blood relation. Consequently, many homes often have large numbers of people living in them.
  • In a recent case study, the Tribal Council estimated a need for at least 4,000 new homes in order to combat the homeless situation.
  • There is an estimated average of 17 people living in each family home (a home which may only have two to three rooms). Some larger homes, built for 6 to 8 people, have up to 30 people living in them.
  • Over-all, 59% of the Reservation homes are substandard.
  • Over 33% of the Reservation homes lack basic water and sewage systems as well as electricity.
  • Many residents must carry (often contaminated) water from the local rivers daily for their personal needs.
  • Some Reservation families are forced to sleep on dirt floors.
  • Without basic insulation or central heating in their homes, many residents on the Pine Ridge Reservation use their ovens to heat their homes.
  • Many Reservation homes lack adequate insulation. Even more homes lack central heating.
  • Periodically, because of the above listed reasons, Reservation residents are found dead from hypothermia.
  • As reported above, at least 60% are infected with the potentially-fatal Black Mold, Stachybotrys and as such theses homes need to be burned to the ground and replaced with new housing due to the infestation. There is no insurance or government program to assist families in replacing their homes.
  • 39% of the homes on the Pine Ridge Reservation have no electricity.
  • The most common form of heating fuel is propane. Wood-burning is the second most common form of heating a home although wood supplies are often expensive or difficult to obtain.
  • Many Reservation homes lack basic furniture and appliances such as beds, refrigerators, and stoves.
  • 60% of Reservation families have no land-line telephone. The Tribe has recently issued basic cell phones to the residents. However, these cell phones (commonly called commodity phones) do not operate off the Reservation at all and are often inoperable in the rural areas on the Reservation or during storms or wind. Computers and internet connections are very rare.
  • Federal and tribal heat assistance programs (such as LLEAP) are limited by their funding. In the winter of 2005-2006, the average one-time only payment to a family was said to be approximately $250-$300 to cover the entire winter. For many, that amount did not even fill their propane heating tanks one time.

Reservation Life

  • Most families live in isolated rural areas.
  • There are few improved (paved) roads on the Reservation and most of the rural homes are inaccessible during times of rain or snow.
  • Weather is extreme on the Reservation. Severe winds are always a factor. Traditionally, summer temperatures reach well over 110°F and winters bring bitter cold with temperatures that can reach – 50°F or worse. Flooding, tornadoes, or wildfires are always a risk.
  • The Pine Ridge Reservation still has no banks, discount stores, or movie theatres. It has only one grocery store of any moderate size and it is located in the village of Pine Ridge on the Reservation.
  • Several of the banks and lending institutions nearest to the Reservation have been targeted for investigation of fraudulent or predatory lending practices, with the citizens of the Pine Ridge Reservation as their victims.
  • There are no public libraries except one at the Oglala Lakota College.


  • There is no public transportation available on the Reservation.
  • Only a minority of Reservation residents own an operable automobile.
  • Predominant form of travel for all ages on the Reservation is walking or hitch-hiking.


  • Alcoholism affects 8 out of 10 families on the Reservation.
  • The death rate from alcohol-related problems on the Reservation is 300% higher than the remaining US population.
  • The Oglala Lakota Nation has prohibited the sale and possession of alcohol on the Pine Ridge Reservation since the early 1970’s. However, the town of Whiteclay, Nebraska (which sits 400 yards off the Reservation border in a contested “buffer” zone) has approximately 14 residents and four liquor stores which sell over 4,100,000 cans of beer each year resulting in a $3,000,000 annual trade. Unlike other Nebraska communities, Whiteclay exists only to sell liquor and make money. It has no schools, no churches, no civic organizations, no parks, no benches, no public bathrooms, no fire service and no law enforcement. Tribal officials have repeatedly pleaded with the State of Nebraska to close these liquor stores or enforce the State laws regulating liquor stores but have been consistently refused.

Water and Aquifer Contamination

  • Many wells and much of the water and land on the Reservation is contaminated with pesticides and other poisons from farming, mining, open dumps, and commercial and governmental mining operations outside the Reservation. A further source of contamination is buried ordnance and hazardous materials from closed u.s. military bombing ranges on the Reservation.
  • Scientific studies show that the High Plains/Oglala Aquifer which begins underneath the Pine Ridge Reservation is predicted to run dry in less than 30 years due to commercial interest use and dryland farming in numerous states south of the Reservation. This critical north amerikan underground water resource is not renewable at anything near the present consumption rate. The recent years of drought have simply accelerated the problem.
  • Scientific studies show that much of the High Plains/Oglala Aquifer has been contaminated with farming pesticides and commercial, factory, mining, and industrial contaminants in the States of South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.

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Indigenous National Liberation, Political Economy, Theory, US/Canada


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